The Real Mode of Transmission of Black Plague in the Middle Ages

A couple of recent science stories caught my interest recently. The first is that the mode of transmission of the devastating black plague in the Middle Ages that killed something like 25 million people may not have been from fleas living on mice and rats, but it was probably airborne (gulp!). The second is reports that the trend of taking selfies with friends has increased transmission of head lice– but it seems the evidence for this is weak at best.

Anyway, since I have published research on Yersinia pestis (the cause of plague), mice, and rice (not lice, but very close- you see there’s only a single letter difference), and I have taken selfies, I consider myself an EXPERT in this area and can therefore put forward any number of odd claims about things. So please enjoy this mash-up of a comic.

"Sayeth ċīese!"

“Sayeth ċīese!”

Goodbye to two good friends

(Note: this post isn’t nearly as sad as it might seem from the title or the introduction below)

Yesterday I lost two close friends. We had been friends for five years, though our relationships had extended a tumultuous 10 or so months before that. Given that we still have unfinished business I expect our friendships to straggle on a little longer. But really, it’s over. My friends have helped me grow in a number of important ways- become more mature, deal with different personalities, forced me to communicate more clearly and to take criticism in a constructive light. The friendships both challenged me in different ways and supported me through a fragile time in my life. I will miss both of these friends for some different reasons- and some of the same reasons.

Like many friendships they have ended because of what other people thought about them. A small number of people had comments on our friendship- some of the comments, upon reflection, were probably well-placed, others certainly were not. But that outside influence is what really broke us apart. I hope that we can become friends again in the future- but we both will have changed so much in the intervening time that we may well be unrecognizable to each other. Still it would be nice to continue this friendship.

Bye Bye

Farewell Systems Biology of Enteropathogens and Systems Virology Centers – you will be missed but not forgotten.

Here are a few mementos of our time together….

  1. Ansong C, Schrimpe-Rutledge AC, MitchellH, Chauhan S,Jones MB, Kim Y-M, McAteerK, Deatherage B, Dubois JL, Brewer HM, Frank BC, McDermottJE, Metz TO, Peterson SN, Motin VL, Adkins JN. A multi-omic systems approach to elucidating Yersinia virulence mechanisms.Molecular Biosystems 2012. In press.
  2. McDermott JE, Corley C, Rasmussen AL, Diamond DL, Katze MG, Waters KM: Using network analysis to identify therapeutic targets from global proteomics dataBMC systems biology 2012, 6:28.
  3. Yoon H, Ansong C, McDermott JE, Gritsenko M, Smith RD, Heffron F, Adkins JN: Systems analysis of multiple regulator perturbations allows discovery of virulence factors in SalmonellaBMC systems biology 2011, 5:100.
  4. Niemann GS, Brown RN, Gustin JK, Stufkens A, Shaikh-Kidwai AS, Li J, McDermott JE, Brewer HM, Schepmoes A, Smith RD et alDiscovery of novel secreted virulence factors from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by proteomic analysis of culture supernatantsInfect Immun 2011, 79(1):33-43.
  5. McDermott JE, Yoon H, Nakayasu ES, Metz TO, Hyduke DR, Kidwai AS, Palsson BO, Adkins JN, Heffron F: Technologies and approaches to elucidate and model the virulence program of salmonellaFront Microbiol 2011, 2:121.
  6. McDermott JE, Shankaran H, Eisfeld AJ, Belisle SE, Neumann G, Li C, McWeeney SK, Sabourin CL, Kawaoka Y, Katze MG et alConserved host response to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in human cell culture, mouse and macaque model systemsBMC systems biology 2011, 5(1):190.
  7. McDermott JE, Corrigan A, Peterson E, Oehmen C, Niemann G, Cambronne ED, Sharp D, Adkins JN, Samudrala R, Heffron F: Computational prediction of type III and IV secreted effectors in gram-negative bacteriaInfect Immun 2011, 79(1):23-32.
  8. McDermott JE, Archuleta M, Thrall BD, Adkins JN, Waters KM: Controlling the response: predictive modeling of a highly central, pathogen-targeted core response module in macrophage activationPLoS ONE 2011, 6(2):e14673.
  9. Aderem A, Adkins JN, Ansong C, Galagan J, Kaiser S, Korth MJ, Law GL, McDermott JG, Proll SC, Rosenberger C et alA systems biology approach to infectious disease research: innovating the pathogen-host research paradigmMBio 2011, 2(1):e00325-00310.
  10. Buchko GW, Niemann G, Baker ES, Belov ME, Heffron F, Adkins JN, McDermott JE (2011). A multi-pronged search for a common structural motif in the secretion signal of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium type III effector proteinsMolecular Biosystems. 6(12):2448-58.
  11. Lawrence PK, Kittichotirat W, Bumgarner RE, McDermott JE, Herndon DR, Knowles DP, Srikumaran S: Genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2: ovine and bovine isolatesJ Bacteriol 2010, 192(4):1167-1168
  12. Yoon H, McDermott JE, Porwollik S, McClelland M, Heffron F: Coordinated regulation of virulence during systemic infection of Salmonella enterica serovar TyphimuriumPLoS Pathog 2009, 5(2):e1000306.
  13. *Taylor RC, Singhal M, Weller J, Khoshnevis S, Shi L, McDermott J: A network inference workflow applied to virulence-related processes in Salmonella typhimuriumAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2009, 1158:143-158.
  14. *Shi L, Chowdhury SM, Smallwood HS, Yoon H, Mottaz-Brewer HM, Norbeck AD, McDermott JE, Clauss TRW, Heffron F, Smith RD, and Adkins JN. Proteomic Investigation of the Time Course Responses of RAW 264.7 Macrophages to Salmonella Infection. Infection and Immunity 2009, 77(8):3227-33.
  15. *Shi L, Ansong C, Smallwood H, Rommereim L, McDermott JE, Brewer HM, Norbeck AD, Taylor RC, Gustin JK, Heffron F, Smith RD, Adkins JN. Proteome of Salmonella Enterica Serotype Typhimurium Grown in a Low Mg/pH Medium. J Proteomics Bioinform. 2009; 2:388-397.
  16. *Samudrala R, Heffron F, McDermott JE: Accurate prediction of secreted substrates and identification of a conserved putative secretion signal for type III secretion systemsPLoS Pathog 2009, 5(4):e1000375.
  17. *McDermott JE, Taylor RC, Yoon H, Heffron F: Bottlenecks and hubs in inferred networks are important for virulence in Salmonella typhimuriumJ Comput Biol 2009, 16(2):169-180.
  18. *Ansong C, Yoon H, Norbeck AD, Gustin JK, McDermott JE, Mottaz HM, Rue J, Adkins JN, Heffron F, Smith RD: Proteomics Analysis of the Causative Agent of Typhoid FeverJ Proteome Res 2008.

*these were really from slightly before our time- but I’ll count them there anyway

Astrology: they might have something there

OK- that title was just to suck everyone in. I don’t believe in astrology any more than I believe in reading tea leaves to tell the future (I don’t at all, by the way). But here’s the weird thing: the month that you are born in has an influence on how long you live (statistically speaking). And that is very weird. Ptolemaicsystem-small There’ve been a number of studies on this and there’s probably more recent literature but I’ll talk about the results of a study published in PNAS in 2001, “Lifespan depends on month of birth” by Doblhammer and Vaupel.

In this study they examined birth records from Northern Hemisphere countries (Austria and Denmark) with a number of subjects over a million. They found that individuals born in autumn (October-December) lived, on average, about 4-8 months longer, than those born in spring (April-June). They then did the same comparison in the Southern Hemisphere and found that the relationship was opposite.

So it seems from their study that being born in fall months provides some protective benefit for overall lifespan. Why would that be? The authors conclude (from some further analysis) that events early in life might impact future health. These might be susceptibility to infectious and chronic diseases precipitated by differences in immune system development early in life. Since different seasons provide different environments for immune development (in the form of increased or decreased chances of infection, e.g.) this would seem to be a reasonable idea. The development of a healthy immune system may actually require more challenge, not less (which is why it’s thought that kids kept too clean have a higher chance of developing asthma and other autoimmune disorders)- which is why the winter months may offer more protection, eventually, for infants.

This study is a nice example of how seemingly nonsensical ideas, that the month you were born in can have an effect on your life, can sometimes have a grounding in real science. Of course, this has nothing to do with the alignments of the stars and planets, at least not in the mystical sense. Being born in December (in the Northern Hemisphere) I’m planning on enjoying my extra months somewhere sunny and tropical.