The short version: This is a good paper about an important topic, gender bias in publication. The authors try to address two main points: What is the relationship between gender and research output?; and What is the relationship between author gender and paper impact? The study shows a bias in number of papers published by gender, but apparently fails to control for the relative number of researchers of each gender found in each field. This means that the first point of the paper, that women publish less than men, can’t be separated from the well-known gender bias in most of these fields- i.e. there are more men than women. This seems like a strange oversight, and it’s only briefly mentioned in the paper. The second point, which is made well and clearly, is that papers authored by women are cited less than those authored by men. This is the only real take home of the paper, though it is a very important and alarming one.
What the paper does say: that papers authored by women are cited less than those authored by men.
What the paper does NOT say: that women are less productive than men, on average, in terms of publishing papers.
The slightly longer version
This study on gender bias in scientific publishing is a really comprehensive look at gender and publishing world-wide (though it is biased toward the US). The authors do a good job of laying out previous work in this area and then indicate that they are interested in looking at scientific productivity with respect to differences in gender. The first stated goal is to provide an analysis of: “the relationship between gender and research output (for which our proxy was authorship on published papers).”
The study is not in any way incorrect (that I can see in my fairly cursory read-through) but it does present the data in a way that is a bit misleading. Most of the paper describes gathering pretty comprehensive data on gender in published papers relative to author position, geographic location, and several other variables. This is then used to ‘show’ that women are less productive than men in scientific publication but it omits a terribly important step- they never seem to normalize for the ratio of women to men in positions that might be publishing at all. That is, their results very clearly reiterate that there is a gender bias in the positions themselves- but doesn’t say anything (that I can see) about the productivity of individuals (how many papers were published by each author, for example).
They do mention this issue in their final discussion:
UNESCO data show10 that in 17% of countries an equal number of men and women are scientists. Yet we found a grimmer picture: fewer than 6% of countries represented in the Web of Science come close to achieving gender parity in terms of papers published.
And, though this is true, it seems like a less-than-satisfying analysis of the data.
On the other hand, the result that they show at the last- the number of times a paper is cited when a male or female name is included in various locations- is pretty compelling and is really their novel finding. This is actually pretty sobering analysis and the authors provide some ideas on how to address this issue, which seems to be part of the larger problem of providing equal opportunities and advantages to women in science.